LƯỢNG TỬ HỌC – Phần I : VƯỚNG VÍU LƯỢNG TỬ

VƯỚNG VÍU LƯỢNG TỬ

Nguyễn Ngọc Tàu : Anh Kim cho e hỏi về Vướng lượng tử (một trong bốn đặc tính của cơ học lượng tử), sự liên kết giũa 2 hạt gần như ko lệ thuộc vào khoảng cách, dễ nghĩ nó huyền bí…anh có thể nói về liên kết đó !!!

Wambua

Vướng víu lượng tử nói gọn là vướng lượng tử hay rối lượng tử (quantum entanglement), là một hiệu ứng được phát triển trong cơ học lượng tử, trong đó trạng thái lượng tử của hai hay nhiều vật thể có liên hệ với nhau, dù cho chúng có nằm cách xa nhau. Ví dụ trực quan nhất là hai electron đặt gần nhau có thể dao động cùng một trạng thái, theo thuyết lượng tử. Bây giờ nếu tách chúng ra xa nhau vài kilômet, ngay cả hàng ngàn năm ánh sáng, chúng vẫn sẽ tiếp tục giữ được mối liên kết dao động đồng bộ này.
Có nghĩa là, nếu hai (hoặc nhiều) hạt (hoặc vật thể) vướng víu lượng tử với nhau thì khi tác động vào một trong chúng (ví dụ thay đổi xung lượng, vị trì hay spin quay bằng điện từ chẳng hạn) thì hạt (hoặc nhiều hạt, vật thể) kia chuyển động đồng bộ NGAY TỨC KHẮC bất chấp khoảng cách không gian giữa chúng lớn đến đâu đi nữa.
Với v = l / t trong đó v là vận tốc, l là khoảng cách giữa chúng và t là thời gian chuyển động đồng bộ thì tốc động lan truyền “vướng víu” nhanh hơn nhiều lần tốc độ ánh sáng có thể truyền giữa chúng.
Điều này rõ ràng trái với tiên đề nổi tiếng “tốc độ ánh sáng là tốc độ tuyệt đối của mọi vật thể có năng lượng” trong thuyết tương đối (đúng ra phải gọi là thuyết Einstein).
Vướng víu lượng tử thoát ly và phủ định trực giác của chúng ta về sự vận hành của thế giới, nó trở thành trung tâm của cuộc tranh luận lý thuyết gay gắt. Phát biểu vướng víu lượng tử của Cơ Học Lượng Tử làm cho Albert Einstein nổi sùng với một đồng nghiệp hồi năm 1948, cho rằng nếu thuyết lượng tử dự đoán như vậy trong các phương trình của mình, thì bản thân thuyết lượng tử là cái vô nghĩa. Einstein miệt thị vướng víu lượng tử là “những tác động ma quỷ từ xa”.

1/. Vướng Víu Lượng Tử Vi Mô :
Từ những năm 1970, một loạt rất nhiều thí nghiệm chính xác đã được thực hiện để minh chứng cho vướng víu lượng tử. Lượng Tử học thực nghiệm đề xuất rằng mọi hạt có thể bị “vướng” từ trước đó, và thậm chí chúng có thể tương tác dù nằm ở hai phía của vũ trụ.
Năm 1982, vật lý và toán học đã có thể chứng minh vướng víu lượng tử bằng toán học, đến năm 2015, thực nghiệm đầu tiên đã có thể khẳng định chắc chắn điều này, công bố trên Tạp chí Nature. Nhóm các nhà khoa học thực hiện thành công thí nghiệm này được dẫn dắt bởi Ronald Hanson, Viện khoa học Nano Kavli thuộc Đại học Hà Lan và rất nhiều cộng sự đến từ Tây Ban Nha và Anh. Thí nghiệm mang tên “loophole-free Bell test” được tham chiếu dựa trên đề xuất của nhà vật lý John Stewart Bell vào năm 1964.Bell tin tưởng rằng đây là một phương pháp chứng minh vướng víu lượng tử có thật.
Theo lý thuyết, vướng víu lượng tử xảy ra khi một cặp hạt (nhiều hạt) vẫn còn tương quan vận động qua khoảng cách theo kiểu mà tác động thực hiện trên một hạt cũng có ảnh hưởng đến hạt (nhiều hạt) kia.
Khi hai hạt vướng víu được kiểm tra, tính chất vật lý của chúng có tương quan. Ví dụ, một spin quay theo chiều kim đồng hồ của hạt A sẽ bằng spin ngược chiều kim đồng hồ với hạt B, bởi một spin kết hợp zero. Tuy nhiên, khi đo một hạt riêng lẻ bị vướng víu có thể xảy ra như là một hành động độc lập, do đó sẽ ảnh hưởng đến các hạt khác – vì vậy ta không thể biết liệu hành động bình đẳng và tương ứng với hạt khác là kết quả của vướng víu lượng tử, hoặc là kết quả của phép đo.
Điều này có thể xảy ra với một cặp hạt đơn lập; nhưng vướng víu lượng tử cũng có thể xảy ra với một hạt duy nhất. Ví dụ, một đơn photon (quang tử), có thể được chia thành hai hạt mà vẫn được kết nối – kết nối đó được gọi là vướng víu lượng tử. Hàm sóng của hạt duy nhất trải rộng trên một khoảng cách lớn, nhưng các hạt riêng lẻ không thể được phát hiện tại nhiều hơn một lần đo, hàm sóng sụp đổ.
Nhóm nghiên cứu tại Đại học Griffiths sử dụng máy dò homodyne – là, các công cụ có thể đo sóng và tính chất sóng – Giáo sư Howard Wiseman và nhóm của ông đã chứng minh rằng hàm sóng này sụp đổ là sự thực minh chứng cho vướng víu lượng tử. Họ đã khiến hai electron tương tác với nhau ở khoảng cách 1,3km, nghĩa là có tồn tại vướng víu lượng tử giữa chúng. Mặc dù chưa thể xác định chính xác ở khoảng cách xa hơn, nhưng đây thật sự đã là bằng chứng thuyết phục về sự tồn tại của hiện tượng này..

2/. Vướng Víu Lượng Tử Vĩ Mô :
Thí nghiệm của Maria Chekhova đầu năm 2016 về vướng viu lượng tử sử dụng chùm tia đến 100.000 photon và cũng kiểm nhận được vướng víu lượng tử giữa chúng, không chỉ giữa một cặp hạt.
Việc tạo ra sự vướng víu giữa các hạt đòi hỏi chúng phải bắt đầu trong một trạng thái có trật tự cao, điều không phù hợp với nhiệt động lực học, quy trình này chi phối các tương tác giữa nhiệt và các hình thức năng lượng khác. Điều này đặt ra một thách thức đặc biệt lớn khi cố gắng để hiện thực hóa vướng víu lượng tử ở cấp vĩ mô giữa một số lượng lớn các hạt.
“Thế giới vĩ mô mà chúng ta đang sống thường có vẻ rất có trật tự, nhưng nó hoàn toàn rối loạn ở cấp nguyên tử. Các quy luật nhiệt động lực học thường ngăn chúng ta quan sát các hiện tượng lượng tử trong các vật thể vĩ mô”, Paul Klimov, nghiên cứu sinh tại Viện Kỹ thuật phân tử, Đại học Chicago và là tác giả chính của nghiên cứu, cho biết.
Trước đây, các nhà khoa học đã vượt qua những rào cản nhiệt động lực và đạt được sự vướng víu ở cấp vĩ mô trong chất rắn và chất lỏng ở nhiệt độ cực thấp (-270oC) và áp dụng từ trường rất lớn (lớn hơn 1000 lần một nam châm ủ lạnh điển hình) hoặc sử dụng các phản ứng hóa học. Mới đây trên tạp chí Science Advances, Klimov và các cộng sự tại Viện Kỹ thuật phân tử đã chứng minh rằng vướng víu lượng tử ở cấp vĩ mô có thể được tạo ra ở nhiệt độ phòng và trong một từ trường thấp.
Các nhà nghiên cứu sử dụng ánh sáng laser hồng ngoại để sắp hàng theo ưu tiên các trạng thái từ tính của hàng ngàn electron và hạt nhân và sau đó sử dụng các xung điện từ, tương tự như những xung được dùng cho chụp ảnh cộng hưởng từ thông thường, làm vướng víu chúng. Quy trình này làm cho các cặp electron và hạt nhân ở cấp vĩ mô có thể tích 40 micromet khối (bằng thể tích của một tế bào hồng cầu) của chất bán dẫn SiC trở nên vướng víu.
“Chúng tôi biết rằng các trạng thái spin của hạt nhân nguyên tử kết hợp với các khuyết tật của chất bán dẫn có các tính chất lượng tử tuyệt vời ở nhiệt độ phòng”, Awschalom, Giáo sư kỹ thuật phân tử tại Phòng thí nghiệm quốc gia Argonne, nói. “Chúng là cố kết, tồn tại lâu dài và có thể kiểm soát bằng lượng tử ánh sáng và các thiết bị điện tử. Với những ‘mảnh’ lượng tử tạo ra các trạng thái lượng tử bị vướng víu vĩ mô có vẻ như là một mục tiêu có thể đạt được”.
Ngoài sự quan tâm của vật lý cơ bản, “khả năng để sử dụng các trạng thái vướng víu lượng tử mạnh mẽ trong một chất bán dẫn điện tử ở nhiệt độ phòng có ý nghĩa quan trọng đối với các thiết bị lượng tử…

(còn nữa)

Wambuakim

214 Trả lời “LƯỢNG TỬ HỌC – Phần I : VƯỚNG VÍU LƯỢNG TỬ”

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